TIL: Human Japanese 22,23,24

Nothing says enjoyable lunch break like learning another language! I’ve got loads more books that I want to get through this year, so it’s time to pick up the pace and start putting this one to rest. Managed to get through three chapters today, though that’s partially due to chapter 22 containing just a small blurb meant to excite you about speaking Japanese.

New Vocabulary

ひや (Bedroom)
やま (Mountain)
和食 [わしょく] (Japanese Food)
くさ (Grass)

Chapter 23

Directional Particle に
に can refer to at, in, on, and to, though the focus for now is on “to”. English is a prepositional language as marker words tend to come before the things they mark, but Japanese is postpositional. The particle always comes after the words they are referring to.
ーえきに。。。(to the station)
ーこうえんに。。。(to the park)
ーがっこうに。。。(to the school)
ーあなたのひやに。。。(to your bedroom)
ーまりこさんのいえに。。。(to Mariko’s house)
ーわたしhうぃきにいきました。(I went to the station)
ーまりこさんはゆうびんきょくにいきますか。(will Mariko go to the post office?)
ーがっこうにジョンさんhうぃきませんでした。(John didn’t go to school)
ーあした、せんせいはわたしのいえにきます。(Tomorrow, the teacher will come to my home)
just as you would say either “I will go to school tomorrow” or “tomorrow, I will go to school”, you can move に phrases around in a sentence.

ーがっこうにいってください。(Please go to school)
ーここにきてください。(Please come here)
ーわたしのいえにきてください。(Please come to my house)
notice that the particle is used even in “come here” type situations, where it would be dropped in English
ーください is the polite command verb. It means “please give me”… so we are sort of saying “please give me your presence”

どこ = where

ーあなたはどこにいきますか。(where are you going?/where will you go?)
ーがくせいたちはどこにいきましたか。(Where did the students go?)
ーあした、どこにいきましょうか。(Tomorrow, where should we go?)

に can also mean “on” in reference to time… “on Friday”
“On Friday, I went snowboarding.”
“Last week, I went snowboarding.”
“I will go in June.”
“I will go next month.”
に is used in conjunction with times that have names, such as Friday, or June. But not last week, or next month. This is the same in English.

ーじゅうがつにいきます。(I will go in October)
ーじゅうがつににほんにいきます。(I will go to Japan in October)
ーもくようびにいきにえきにいきました。(I went to the station on Thursday)
ーどようびにがっこうにいきません。(I don’t go to school on Saturday)

Chapter 24

marks the direct object of a verb.
I = subject
eat = verb
rice = object
を is purely grammatical and does not get used in any modern words. The is pronounced so subtly (unless in music, or deliberately) that it may as well just be “o” instead of “wo”
since ください means “please give me” it’s easy to use this with nouns and を
ーりんごをください (please give me the apple)
ーみずをください(please give me water)
ーねこをください(please give me the cat)
ーあのkるまをください。(please give me that car)
ーこれをください(please give me this)
ーそれをください(please give me that)

this works with any verb
ージョンさんはやまをめました。(John saw a mountain)
ーまりこさんはくるまをめました。(Mariko saw a car)
ーすずきさんはほんをよみます。(Suzuki reads a book)
ーわたしはオレンジジュースをのみます。(I drink orange juice)
ーせいとはしんぶんをよみます。(The student reads a newspaper)
ーせんせいはこのりんごをたべました。(Teacher ate this apple)
ーわたしはこのみずをのみます。(I will drink this water)
ーあなたはわしょくをたべませんか。(Don’t you eat Japanese food?)
just as with に sentence fragments can be moved around as long as you keep the subject を combination together.
ーこのみずをわたしはのみます。(This water, I will drink)

longer sentences include stuff such as:
ーわたしはげつようびにテレビをみました。(I watched tv on Monday.)
ーせいとはせんすうほんをよみました。 (The student read a book last week.)
ーあのひとはきのうすしをたべました。 (The person ate sushi yesterday.)
ーねこはさかなをたべましたか。(Did the cat eat the fish?)

without the use of words such as なに or どこ we are asking only yes/no questions. どこ asks where, while なに asks what.
ーなにをたべますか。(what will you eat?)
ースミスさんはなにをたべましたか。(What did Smith eat?)
ースミスさんはラーメンをたべました。(Smith ate ramen.)
ーあなたはなにをよみましたか。(what did you read?)
ーしんぶんをよみました。(I read the newspaper)
ーうまはなにをたべますか。(What do horses eat?)
ーくさをたべます。(They eat grass)
ーせんせいはなにをのみますか。(What will teacher drink?)
ービールをのみます。Teacher will drink beer)
ーまりこさんはなにをみましたか。(What did Mariko see?)
ーねこをみました。(She saw a cat)

ーうん (yeah/yep/mhmm)
ーなにか (something)
ーよ (new info marker)

ージョンさん、わしょくがすきですか。(John, do you like Japanese food?)
ーうん、すきですよ。(Yes, I like it.)
ーなにがすきですか。(What do you like?)
ーすしがいちばんすきです。 (I like sushi the best)
ーきょうはなにをたべますか。(What will you eat today?)
ーてんぷらをたべます。(I’ll eat tempura)
ーいいですね。わたしはすしをたべます。(That’s nice. I will eat sushi.)
ーなにかをのみませんか。(Won’t you drink something?)
ーのみますよ。(I’ll drink)
ーなにをのみますか。(what will you drink?)
ーワインをのみます。ジョンさんは?(I’ll drink wine. And you?)
ーわたしはビールをのみます。(I’ll drink beer).